In my case I was referring to a stoped line of traffic. For example one time going to the Big E and there was a line of traffic a 1/2 mile to a mile long. There were people bypassing the whole line and driving right up to the exit attempting to cut the line. I hugged the car ahead of me and didn't allow them in. Fortunately a Mass. state cop saw what was going on and started sending the line cutters away. I don't understand why some people think this is okay.Those are studies made to confirm a set idea. In reality, the only reason starting the merge when you pass the "merge left" sign doesn't work is because of the people who pull out of the slowing line of traffic and into the one that ends ahead, to pass those who slowed down to let people merge seamlessly. Then they try to force their way back in at the last second.